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Additional public funding is also needed for the further development and implementation of new technologies for security planning, including remote sensing, visioning, scenario building, and GIS technologies. Newsome, B. Risk management isn’t reactive only; it should be part of the planning process to figure out risk that might happen in the project and how to control that risk if it in fact occurs. In response to the proliferation of unsightly barriers throughout the nation's capital, the National Capital Planning Commission, the planning and review agency for the federal government in the National Capital Region, prepared the National Capital Urban Design and Security Plan. Along with the inclusion of FEMA as a part of the Department of Homeland Security, these initiatives suggest that planning for security is essentially similar to planning for responses to natural disasters. If planners had been involved earlier in decision-making processes, there would likely have been more opportunities to employ proven planning strategies as effective security measures. Reference Manual to Mitigate Potential Terrorist Attacks. These commitments were made to a House appropriations subcommittee on behalf of the Department of Homeland Security, by the incoming Homeland Security Secretary Michael Chertoff who said, "Our philosophy, our decision making, our operational activities and our spending must be grounded in risk management as we determine how to best organize to prevent, respond, and recover from attacks." However, anecdotal evidence suggests that planners and first responders do not easily exchange data and information, whether in day-to-day transactions or in crisis situations. In a world where the tradeoffs between risk and resources have been accepted on issues ranging from highway design to air safety to vaccinations, the general public must engage in dialogue to determine the accepted level of risk posed by various terrorist threats. SafeScape is described as an approach to designing communities that has the primary focus on creating a sense of community. These standards should be based upon risk assessments that reflect the specific needs of the community. It is important to recognize and identify both the value and the limitations of different documents that are being used to develop de-facto standards in both the public and private sectors. APA and its chapters support the establishment of federal building location standards that are consistent with existing federal policies that encourage placement of federal facilities in urban locales and near transit. There isn’t usually just one risk … It is the policy of APA and its chapters that all geospatial information remains in the public record, with exceptions provided for specific data attributes that are traditionally kept confidential, such as the number of employees in a building or at a site. (Source: adapted from Building Design for Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2004. For civilian applications in urban areas, the building location and design standards recently enacted by the DoD do not provide sufficient flexibility with regard to standoff distances (i.e. The challenge to APA and its chapters is to address security concerns while maintaining the elements that preserve and enhance great communities. Other forthcoming design guides will address the protection of public buildings from natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, and high winds. As stated in Designing for Security in the Nation's Capital, a report prepared by the Interagency Task Force of the National Capital Planning Commission, "These installations communicate fear and retrenchment and undermine the basic premise that underlies a democratic society." With careful attention to the principles of good urban design, the concept of layers of defense can help to minimize the potentially adverse impacts of physical barriers, minimum standoff distance requirements, and other similar methods. The management of risk, all dimensions of risk, is key to maximizing mission effectiveness and sustainment of readiness. Applicable sections include: While not carrying the force of law as regulations do, standards constitute established, widely accepted practices. National Capital Planning Commission. These standards are preferable to more prescriptive standards, which rely on minimum standoff distances as the "primary strategy" for the protection of buildings and facilities. Mr. Ashford is a caseworker at the County Human Services Department. Part 1. Measures to promote physical security should not be left solely to the discretion of first responders. Current mechanisms are inadequate for the task and are subject to political abuses. Legal Issues in Professional Practice Programs, IV. There is not a one-size-fits-all solution for security. National Conference of State Legislatures. Planners have also been active in planning to mitigate natural hazards, disaster events, and recovery and reconstruction following catastrophes. Also, the Rand Corporation has published Mapping the Risks: Assessing the Homeland Security Implications of Publicly Available Geospatial Information. accordance with the Activity Risk Management Policy. Risks are potentialities, and in a project management … 2003. With the exception of the horrific events of the Oklahoma City bombing and the World Trade Center, terrorism aimed at Americans has been primarily directed at military or diplomatic mission facilities overseas. But in countries where terrorism is more prevalent, the targets are often places that are not owned or used by a government, such as restaurants, clubs, and other types of entertainment facilities. Let's look at an example of how this works. Under the amended state law, information "containing specific details of public security plans and ... the detailed plans and drawings of public building and infrastructure" is no longer considered public information and can be restricted. A hodge-podge of hasty solutions (e.g. Applied to buildings: The first layer of defense is defined as the surrounding area, including installations, infrastructure, and other buildings outside the perimeter of the site. This is generally governed by site plan guidelines and building codes. The third layer of defense refers to the building envelope itself. OPSEC is " a process used to deny to potential adversaries information about capabilities and/or intentions by identifying, controlling and protecting evidence of the planning and executing of sensitive activities. New security concerns have become a pervasive part of American life in the aftermath of the Oklahoma City bombing and the terrorist attacks that occurred in New York City, Washington, D.C., and Pennsylvania on September 11, 2001. Typically, planners are presented with a set of criteria and are then asked to meet those criteria in the context of the area in which a building or facility is to be located. These include the following: Application of legislation is generally accomplished through the enactment of implementing regulations ("rules"). Although all communities may face threats, there are critical areas of the country that are at the highest risk form terrorist attack. Purpose and Scope This policy establishes the process for the management of risks faced by [organisation]. Your essay should also outline qualitative and quantitative measures of risk and discuss how cultures, structures, and process impact the risk management process. Notwithstanding these restrictions, planners themselves should be encouraged to participate in closed public meetings whenever they involve subjects pertinent to the planners' professional expertise or experience. The short-term impacts of these measures were easily justifiable in the immediate aftermath of 9/11. Such measures can also be helpful to reduce fear of criminal behavior as well as the actual incidence of criminal behavior, and they can be viewed as a means for fostering safe growth within communities. The American Planning Association (APA) and its chapters affirm that it is imperative for planners, working in concert with first responders and other allied professionals, to: At all levels of government, planners have long been involved in decisions that affect land use relationships along with decisions that affect the design and operation of civic space, utility networks, transportation systems, and other public facilities. Ensuring rigorous background investigations for planning personnel, restricting the distribution of sensitive information to those with a "need to know," and the use of non-disclosure agreements are useful measures that can be implemented at any level of government and in the private sector. Disclosure and documentation of requests for critical infrastructure information must follow procedural guidelines that have been drawn up in conformance with federal and state laws establishing requirements for open meetings, public disclosure, freedom of information, and an individual's right to privacy. The Department of Defense Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) family of documents "provide planning, design, construction, sustainment, restoration, and modernization criteria, and apply to the Military Departments, the Defense Agencies, and the DoD Field Activities ... Headquarters, United States Army Corps of Engineers (HQUSACE), Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC), and Air Force Civil Engineer Support Agency (AFCESA) are responsible for administration of the UFC system." APA and its chapters also recognize that security requirements may sometimes make it necessary to protect public disclosure of certain information regarding public meetings, documents, and data, including digital and printed maps, GIS databases, and other geospatial data. At the same time, security needs should not unduly take away resources that are essential for other crucial social, economic, and physical programs. American Professional Agency is the APA’s endorsed medical liability insurance provider and created the following AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™ courses for members, which are valued at $120. But if a building, place, or system is unsafe, it makes more sense to fix the problem than to attempt to restrict access to information about the problem. APA and its chapters affirm that the protection of civil liberties and personal freedoms must be upheld. APA and its chapters support the more consistent and effective enactment of Executive Order EO-12372, entitled "Intergovernmental Review of Federal Programs." Vulnerability refers to the susceptibility of an asset to hazard damage, or, in the security context, any weakness that can be exploited by an aggressor, and Vulnerability Assessment is the evaluation of characteristics that contribute to and mitigate this susceptibility. Managing your risks is arguably one of the most important parts of a project. Risk Management. Roles and Responsibilities APA and its chapters endorse additional federal support for the development of coordinated and accessible GIS and related data and applications, recognizing the federal government's current role as the most important source of geographic and remote sensing data. In the preparation of threat, vulnerability, and risk assessments, APA and its chapters support the development of community-based planning strategies and design guidelines that provide guidance on how the physical environment can be designed or retrofitted in response to a threat assessment or identified threat level. Application of the security measures developed by and for the federal government is profoundly changing the character and form of our communities and metropolitan regions. In matters related to planning for security, federal and state agencies are encouraged to utilize locally adopted land use approval processes, including comprehensive plan, zoning, site design and design review. In the development of security plans and plans for safe growth and safe communities, APA and its chapters advocate security policies and guidance that focus on: (1) performance rather than prescriptive standards that address physical, operational, and other approaches, and that are context-appropriate; (2) balancing security and overall community development objectives; (3) responses that reflect different scales: site, neighborhood, community, and region; (4) strategies that develop and incorporate community-based risk assessments in addition to specific assessments; and (5) incorporating new information about new security threats and new technology and security solutions. Building, Site and Layout Design Guidance to Mitigate Potential Terrorist Attacks. On the other hand, comprehensive plans and building codes will be deficient if they do not account for the findings derived from threat and vulnerability assessments. Prepared for the Risk Management – An Organizational “Flu Shot,” May 11, 2011. APA and its chapters endorse the adoption of a security planning process for public facilities that provides a comprehensive focus on prevention, protection, response, and recovery/continuity beyond traditional plans. It also provides a means to reassert basic planning principles and techniques that can contribute to effective prevention and mitigation of security threats. This process is equally applicable to government, its contractors, and to private enterprise in the protection of their trade secrets and other proprietary information." Many of the applicable rules are highly technical and nonintuitive; common sense is simply not a sufficient guide to avoiding legal liability. 2001. According to the GSA Office of the Chief Architect (OCA), "the ISC (has) revised and updated GSA's 1997 Draft Security Criteria, taking into consideration technology developments, new cost considerations, the experience of practitioners applying the criteria, and the need to balance security requirements with public building environments that remain lively, open, and accessible ..." Further, the ISC "developed the ISC Security Design Criteria to ensure that security becomes an integral part of the planning, design, and construction of new federal office buildings and major modernization projects.". Furthermore, jurisdictions are encouraged to develop and implement a formal policy on the designation, handling, and storage of sensitive information. Risk management works best in context that meet a number of criteria. If one risk that’s passed your threshold has its conditions met, it can put your entire project in jeopardy. A Hazard is "a source of potential danger or adverse condition" that may be natural or manmade (either accidental or intentional) in origin, and Threats are a subset of hazards that generally refer to intentional actions by an adversary. . Aside from certain federal agencies including the DoD, safety and security planning have yet to be institutionalized and incorporated into the planning process through plans and regulatory documents. But over time, these same installations have come to have an adverse impact upon the physical, social, economic and civic life of our communities. Alaska and Utah have enacted similar legislation. Reasons to Support Promote research on best practices for security planning for transit facilities, addressing specific physical security provisions related to stations, boarding areas, bus stops, and the surrounding public realm. These planning measures can address vulnerability and risk in a more effective manner than have many of the post 9/11 ad hoc measures, which heighten fear and unduly compromise the unique character of a place and of a community. Today, a design guidance library should include: No discussion of security planning would be complete without some treatment of the issue of information sensitivity. The legislative foundations of what is now homeland security in the United States date back to the beginning of the Cold War. Adopted by the Legislative and Policy Committee, January 13, 2005 Planning as a profession is accustomed to working with large complex data sets and to using GIS and similar software to model various phenomena and to analyze scenarios. Processes, procedures, and model language still need to be developed. This Risk Management Plan defines how risks associated with the project will be identified, analyzed, and managed. Chicago: APA Planners Press. Risk management or security solutions range from intelligence gathering, policing, operational procedures and site selection and design (building to landscape or streetscape design) to larger planning-based solutions such as transportation and land-use management. Evacuation routes must be planned concurrently with planning for street closures and for the location and design of physical barriers outside buildings. Conduct research on approaches to risk management processes policies and concerns in your current or anticipated professional arena to find an example of a risk management plan. All employees of the company shall be made aware of risks in their respective domains and their mitigation measures 4. Another resource that can help in determining whether to withhold information is the Federal Geographic Data Consortium's, Alaska, where state law exempts from disclosure "records or information pertaining to a plan, program, or procedures for establishing, maintaining, or restoring security in the state, or to a detailed description or evaluation of systems, facilities, or infrastructure in the state, but only to the extent that the production of the records or information (A) could reasonably be expected to interfere with the implementation or enforcement of the security plan, program, or procedures; (B) would disclose confidential guidelines for investigations or enforcement and the disclosure could reasonably be expected to risk circumvention of the law; or (C) could reasonably be expected to endanger the life or physical safety of an individual or to present a real and substantial risk to the public health and welfare.". 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